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Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-10-29 Origin: Site

I.

Researchers engaged in the control simulation of electric vehicles usually need a set of appropriate model parameters to produce operating conditions on the desired area.

Since any set of parameters may not be reasonable, they look for a set of parameters in the simulation that belong to a real motor, or at least a verified model.

However, what they have discovered may not meet their requirements well.

Also, since there may be a programming error in a set of parameters and working conditions, they may not notice an exception to the simulation results.

So they do need some design algorithms that simply give the model parameters that control the simulation within the required scope of work.

There are several works of DC motor design [1-3]

Induction Motor [4-7]

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)[8-10]

, Or around the rotor (WRSM)[11-13]

, And two cylindrical [9], [12]and salient-pole [10-11], [13]rotor types.

They explained good ways to find physical implementation and manufacturing parameters and made some improvements;

However, they did not give all the model parameters suitable for the simulation, and sometimes did not even give the winding resistance.

Awebsite provides some computing tools for permanent magnets (PM)

Car designer [14].

It calculates physical parameters, including most of the parameters required for online simple model simulation.

However, the tools ask the user about some of the options, which are not known to inexperienced users even if explanatory pictures are provided.

In addition, the user cannot start directly from the basic requirements for operating conditions such as power, voltage, speed and efficiency.

Therefore, although there are commendable tools and algorithms in motor design, the existing tools and algorithms in the literature are not suitable for researchers to quickly obtain simple model parameters within the required scope of work.

I do not want to extend the reference list, because the study explaining the design methods suitable for the researcher\'s control of the purposes of simulation is clearly a serious lack in the literature.

This paper helps researchers generate their own motion parameters based on the operating conditions they expect.

The proposed algorithm is suitable for DC servo motors, induction motors and synchronous motors with PM or winding rotors of convex or cylindrical type, as well as Transformers.

These are another design algorithms based on standards that are completely different from physical design standards [15-16]

Because it is proposed for the purposes of simulation and calculation.

To illustrate that this design may also give some opinions on the values of manufacturing parameters, including the transformer algorithm.

Although most formulas are good.

As we all know, it should be emphasized that contributions should not be underestimated, and that it is most unlikely to reach a set of parameters that meet the requirements without following particularly organized steps and control assumptions.

My rigorous literature survey did not result in finding an algorithm that met the basic requirements of \"working power, voltage, speed and efficiency\" for DC servo, induction, synchronous motors.

As induction motor and projection

The polar synchronous motor needs detailed algorithm, which is the main contribution of this paper.

As will be described, these algorithms can also be used when given the requirements of the generator mode.

As assumed by most models, the core loss, lag, saturation, and armaturaction roles are ignored here.

The model used by the AC motor is based on 3-phase [

Left and Right arrows2phase (dq)

Transformation equivalent to the amplitude of the phase variable mainly used in the literature.

These algorithms are based on some preferences, as any particular selection of control methods and arbitrary assumptions can be prioritized during the design process to meet the required operating conditions.

For simplicity, most of the algorithm formulas are given in the table.

Models are then given in the paradigm of differential equations, which are ready to be simulated with the solver program. II.

DC Servo Motor Design.

The theory that has been (t)

Derivatives change to zero, electrical and mechanical equations in steady state [17]

Become the motor [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](1)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](2)

If multiplied [i. sub. a]and [omega]

Where are the parameters 【R. sub. a]and [L. sub. a]

Resistance and inductance of Armature ,[K. sub. b]

Is the back potential or torque constant ,[B. sub. f]

Is the friction constant and [J. sub. i]is the inertia;

And variables [v. sub. a]and [i. sub. a]

Voltage and current of the winding applied ,[omega]

Angular rotor speed in [Rad/s]T. sub. L]

Is it load torque ,[P. sub. i]and [P. sub. o]

Input and output power ,[P. sub. m]

Is it mechanical and electrical power ,【P. sub. Cu]and [P. sub. f]

It is the loss power caused by winding resistance and friction respectively.

The model has 5 parameters, but 2 of them are [L. sub. a]and [J. sub. i]

, There is no impact in a stable state.

In addition, there are 2 independent variables ,【v. sub. a]and [T. sub. L].

Therefore, we can have 5 requirements for steady state and 2 requirements for transient, which is the electrical and mechanical time constant determined [L. sub. a]and[J. sub. i]respectively. B.

Algorithm, and give an example of the algorithm of the requirements in table I

Third, most of them are based on the power element diagram (1)-(2)

, For some other requirements, it can be simply modified.

For example, in each ([v. sub. a], [i. sub. a], [P. sub. i]), ([P. sub. o],[P. sub. i], [eta]), ([T. sub. L], [P. sub. o], n), ([k. sub. ml], [P. sub. loss],[P. sub. f]), ([R. sub. a], [L. sub. a], [[tau]. sub. elc])and ([B. sub. f],[J. sub. i],[[tau]. sub. mec])

Triple, if the other two are identified, the third one can be easily found from the simple relationship between them.

If the core loss is not ignored, it must also be subtracted from [P. sub. loss]

When calculating [P. sub. Cu].

The operating values in Table II and the parameters in Table iii are the following simulation of the DC servo motor model [verified accurately]17]: [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](3)III.

Induction Motor Design.

Field Oriented Control theory (FOC)

In the case of a rotor short circuit, it will be considered, where the rotor magnetic field link vector and d-axis.

In addition, the minimum stator rms current will be preferred for equal torque.

Since all derivatives become zero at steady state, the electrical equation [18]

The stator and rotor become [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](4)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](5)where [? ? ]and [[psi]. sub. r]= [[psi]. sub. rd]+ j[[psi]. sub. rq]=[L. sub. r][i. sub. r]+[Mi. sub. s]

Complex stator voltage, current and magnetic flux, and reference frame with respect to rotating at any electrical angular velocity, the rotor is [[omega]. sub. g]; [R. sub. s], [L. sub. s], [R. sub. r]and [L. sub. r]

The stator resistance and inductance, as well as the rotor resistance and inductance, respectively;

The inductance between the stator and the rotor, and [[omega]. sub. r]

It is the electrical speed of the rotor.

With the choice [[omega]. sub. g]satisfying [[psi]. sub. rq]

FOC = 0, from (4)-(5)or [19], we get [[psi]. sub. rd]=[Mi. sub. sd]

In a stable state. Considering [[psi]. sub. r]= ([L. sub. r]/M )([[psi]. sub. s]-[sigma][L. sub. s][i. sub. s])

Steady state value [[[psi]. sub. sq]=[sigma][L. sub. s][i. sub. sq]], [[[psi]. sub. sd]=[L. sub. s][i. sub. sd]](6)

Implementation, which [sigma]= 1 -[M. sup. 2]/([L. sub. s][L. sub. r])

Is the leakage coefficient. Then (4)becomes [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](7)

In a stable state.

Multiply by both sides (3/2)[[i. sub. sd][i. sub. sq]]

From left [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](8)where [P. sub. i]

Stator input power and [P. sub. CuSt]

Is the resistance loss of the stator.

[Choice]

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](9)forces [[psi]. sub. rq][right arrow]

Fast 0 according to the electric time constant of therotor [[tau]. sub. r]=[L. sub. r]/[R. sub. r], and makes (8)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](10)

Another arbitrary choice is the angle of I relative to d-

The axis of the reference frame, no need to impose requirements on [[psi]. sub. rd].

The reasonable choice for this angle is 45 [degrees], i. e. ,[i. sub. sd]= [i. sub. sd]

Maximum mechanical and electrical torque 【T. sub. e]

To some extent [? ? ]since [T. sub. e]

Proportional [i. sub. sd][i. sub. sq]

Because of the choice 【[psi]. sub. rq]

= 0, also let [[omega]]. sub. g]= [[omega]]. sub. s]

, Synchronous speed in electrical rad/s

In other words, this choice provides a certain degree [T. sub. e]

Obtained by the minimum level of the stator rms current. Then from (9)and (10), [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](11)

Where is S?

You can see from the single-

Phase equivalent circuit of induction motor without core loss in steady state ,[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](12)

And according (9), the choice [i. sub. sd]= [i. sub. sd]occurs if [[[tau]. sub. r]= [1-s/s[[omega]. sub. r]]](13)

On the right hand side of the equivalent (11)to that of (12)and using(13)

, We find another parameter relationship from the operation value :[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](14)

In the design algorithm of induction motor, the stator Power factor[phi]. sub. 1]

Since it is equal to [cos45], it should not be the design standarddegrees]

Lag of idealized induction motor [20]

Where, if the minimum stator rmscur rent is applied for the required torque and approximately cos45 [, the flux and stator resistance are zerodegrees]

In most other cases.

The reason is, from (6), since[[psi]. sub. sq]/[[psi]. sub. sd]= [sigma][

About equal to]0,[[psi]. sub. s]

Almost with d-axis, [v. sub. s]is about90[degrees]

Before it, it was about 45 [degrees]ahead of [i. sub. s]when [i. sub. sd]= [i. sub. sq].

Exact value of Cos [[phi]. sub. 1]

It is difficult to determine directly, but we can do it in two stages.

First, the parameters are calculated with [arbitration. [phi]. sub. 1]

The value is 0. 7.

According to the design criteria in the next subsection, the stator current is inversely proportional to cos [[phi]. sub. 1], then ([M. sup. 2]/[L. sub. r])

Proportional [cos. sup. 2][[phi]. sub. 1]by (14)and so are [? ? ]and [L. sub. s]=[M. sup. 2]/(1 -[sigma])[L. sub. r].

Therefore, the stator voltage from (7)

Proportional to cos [[phi]. sub. 1].

Any cos in the first stage [[phi]. sub. 1]value, (7)

The required stator voltage may not be given;

But the correct cos [[phi]. sub. 1]

You can then find the value using scale and calculate some parameters again accordingly. B.

Using an example to meet the requirements in Table IV, the algorithm is first calculated in table v where the same symbol has the same meaning as defined in Section II. Next, 2-

The stage calculation is completed.

In the first stage, the time value represented by the symbol with the upper limit is found with the arbitration cos [[phi]. sub. 1](0.

7 for example)

As shown in Table 6.

In the second phase, some operational values and parameters are accurately calculated as shown in Table VII to meet the requirements.

As shown in Table VIII, some additional operation values can also be calculated. C.

Models that simulate parameter sets can be used with any form of model;

For example, arrange the model differential equation in [18]

Become normal ,(15)

Obtained in synchronous reference frame

The rotor, and the stator current and the rotor magnetic field are the electrical state variables. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](15)

In addition, a double-fed motor model (16)

It can also be used with the parameters found by the algorithm;

However, the operating value of the algorithm is zero rotor voltage [v. sub. rd], [v. sub. rq]. Equation (16)

The differential equation of the model is obtained in [21]

Normal form. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](16)D.

Equivalent circuit and added value: parameters can also be converted to single-

Phase equivalent circuit (Fig. 1)

As shown in Table 9.

All of these parameters and operating conditions are simulated (15)

And the calculation of the equivalent circuit. IV. PMSM DESIGN A.

Theory in order to develop the design algorithm of the permanent magnet synchronous motor, the direction of the stator magnetic field will be considered, where the components of the stator magnetic field linker are from the permanent magnet source ([[PHI]. sub. PM])

Align with d-axis.

In addition, the minimum stator rms current will be preferred for the required torque.

Stator equation]22]

Similar to the induction motor [[omega]. sub. r]replaced for [[omega]. sub. g].

Since all the derivatives become zero in the steady state, the stator equation becomes [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](17)where [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](18)[L. sub. sd]and [L. sub. sq]are d-and q-

Significant-different axis synchronous inductance

The meaning of the pole machine and similar symbols is similar to that of the induction motor.

And then in balance ,[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](19)

Multiply by both sides (3/2)[[i. sub. sd][i. sub. sq]]

Input power from left :[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](20)

The first term on the right is [P. sub. Cu].

Because the mechanical and electrical torque is [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](21)and [[omega]. sub. mec]=[[omega]. sub. r]/[n. sub. pp]

, The sum of the other two terms on the right side (20)

Equal to mechanical and electrical power ([P. sub. m]=[T. sub. e][[omega]. sub. mec]= [P. sub. o]+ [P. sub. f]).

To get the biggest [T. sub. e]

To a certain extent, the rent of the stator rmscur [? ? ]Generation [? ? ]

Equal the derivative [T. sub. e]

About [i. sub. sd]

To zero, we need to solve [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](22)for [i. sub. sd]. Using [? ? ]

Defined as the ratio of torque to total [due to permanent magnets]T. sub. e], and [? ? ]in (22), [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](23)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](24)Since [[PHI]. sub. PM]

Is a certain parameter ,[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](25)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](26)

The algorithm to determine the parameters of the permanent magnet synchronous motor according to the desired operating conditions is very simple for the cylindrical rotor type because [k. sub. TPM]=1 as [L. sub. sd]= [L. sub. sq]. Equating[? ? ]by using (19)gives [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](27)

Permanent magnet synchronous motor for cylindrical rotor.

However, a nonlinear equation [k. sub. TPM]

The problem of these coefficients is very complicated and should be solved. pole type.

To determine [it is recommended to use a loop algorithm instead of resolving this complex problem]k. sub. TPM].

The loop algorithm can be Newton-

Rampson\'s method, but the derivative is replaced by the numerical approximation of the last two iterations.

Other parameters can then be determined. B.

Using an example to meet the requirements in table X, the algorithm is first calculated in TableXI, where the same symbol has the same meaning as defined in the previous sections.

So, if the rotor is cylindrical. e. [k. sub. dq]

= 1, other parameters and some operation values are shown in Table 12.

For the significant-pole motors ([k. sub. dq][not equal to]1)

, The following algorithm with loop is proposed: Step 1: assign stop e value for | [e. sub. v]

| Absolute error [V. sub. s1. sup. rms]

Requirements, for example [epsilon]= [10. sup. -6]V.

Step 2: assign a limit for | [DELTA][k. sub. TPM]

|, Absolute change]k. sub. TPM]

In a step, for example [DELTA][k. sub. max]= 0. 02.

Step 3: start the following operation at any time for example value [k. sub. TPM]= 0. 5, [DELTA][k. sub. TPM]= 0. 0001, [e. sub. v]= 0. 3V,[e. sub. V. sup. old]= 0.

Step 4 of 5 V: edge | [e. sub. V]| > [epsilon], Step 4. a:[? ? ]Step 4. b: If [? ? ], then [? ? ]Step 4. c: [k. sub. TPM]= [k. sub. TPM]+ [DELTA][k. sub. TPM],[e. sub. V. sup. old]= [e. sub. V]Step 4. d: Calculate [i. sub. sd]and [i. sub. sd]from (25)and (26)Step 4. e: [? ? ]Step 4. g: Calculate [v. sub. sd]and [v. sub. sq]from (19)Step 4. h: [? ? ]

At the end, the algorithm generates the parameters and action values in the example in TableXIII.

They are verified accurately by simulating C.

Models used to simulate parameter sets can be used with any form of the model, for example ,(28)

In the synchronous reference frame with stator current and rotor speed as electrical state variables.

The differential equation of the model is obtained in [22]

Normal form. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](28)V. WRSM DESIGN A.

Theory to determine the WRSM parameters of certain operating values, the same as the design method of permanent magnet synchronous motor that replaces [P. sub. Cu]and[[PHI]. sub. PM]with [P. sub. CuSt]and [Mi. sub. f]

Where are they 【i. sub. f]

Is the rotor current, M is the inductance between the stator and the rotor. Similarly [P. sub. i]in [I. sub. s1. sup. rms]and[T. sub. e]

The formula is replaced only with the input power of the stator [P. sub. iSt]= [P. sub. i]-[P. sub. CuRot].

In addition, any two expectations for a given [v. sub. f], [i. sub. f]and [k. sub. rl]=[P. sub. CuRot]/[P. sub. loss];

The third is found in their steady-state relationship,v. sub. f]= [R. sub. f][i. sub. f], where [v. sub. f]and [R. sub. f]

It is the voltage and resistance of the rotor.

Determine the rotor inductance [L. sub. f]

, Additional requirements for measuring the current between the Stator phase and the rotor winding[[sigma]. sub. f]= 1 -[3[M. sup. 2]/2[L. sub. sd][L. sub. f]]](29)

This measurement is slightly more complex than the usual leakage efficiency due to the notability of the rotor, but still conforms to 0 [

Less than or equal to][[sigma]. sub. f][

Less than or equal to]1 since[L. sub. sd]

Is 3/2 times the Stator phase self-sensing, in the case of optimal alignment with the rotor, noleakage [23]. Then, weget [[L. sub. f]= [3[M. sup. 2]/2(1 -[[sigma]. sub. f])[L. sub. sd]]]. (30)B.

Algorithm with example 1)

Requirements: without losing the generalization, do not write the same steps again as in the permanent magnet synchronous motor design, and the same requirements will be assumed to be slightly different, while [P. sub. o], [P. sub. iSt]= [P. sub. i]-[P. sub. CuRot], [P. sub. CuRot]and [P. sub. f]

As before ,[k. sub. rl]= 0.

Choose 2, meaning [P. sub. i]= 5250W,[P. sub. loss]= 1250W, [P. sub. CuRot]= 250W, [k. sub. ml]= 0. 2 and [eta]=0.

7619 is ideal.

Let the extra need be [v. sub. f]= 24Vand [[sigma]. sub. f]= 0. 02. 2)

Calculation: Now, all the other values in the calculation section given in PMSMsection are the same [[PHI]. sub. PM]as [Mi. sub. f]. Then, [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](31)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](32)

For the cylindrical rotor case ([k. sub. dq]= 1), [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](33)and by (30), [L. sub. f]= 154. 5 mH.

For the significant-Case of pole]k. sub. dq]= 5/3. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](34)and by (30), [L. sub. f]= 130. 5 mH. C.

Models used to simulate parameter sets can be used with any form of model, for example, the following models in the synchronous reference frame with stator current and rotor speed as electrical state variables. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](35)

This is the paradigm of the model differential equation in [24]

, Where the flux link variable is [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](36)and [[psi]. sub. f]

Magnetic flux of rotor winding. VI.

According to the motor mode, the generator in the generator mode is modified, and the input power and the shaft output power of the motor become negative, which is defined as negative.

Although the negative value of the shaft output power with the motor mode definition is the shaft input power of the generator, the relative value of the input power to the motor mode definition is not the output power of the generator if the excitation current is applied.

Therefore, when the proposed algorithm is used for generator mode, the negative value of the generator\'s desired output power is added to the excitation power and used as the input power in the algorithm.

For example, for a bypass rotor synchronous generator, the design requirement is 1300W of the total shaft input power, 1000W of the net motor stator output power and 100W of the excitation (rotor)inputpower.

So any two input power [P. sub. i]= -

Output power: 900WP. sub. o]= -

1300 W, efficiency (1300)/(-900)= 1.

Although the efficiency of the generator is 444 = 0, 900/1300 is used as a design requirement in the algorithm. 692 actually. For doubly-

Motor, the power input of the rotor is also considered to be the excitation power, if the positive excitation power is extracted from the electrical terminal of the rotor, the excitation power will also become negative.

The design of the induction motor according to the generator mode requirements requires two further measures.

I. Initial value cos [[phi]. sub. 1]

Negative values must be taken, for example-0. 7.

Second, do not from (13)

Negative slip ,[[tau]. sub. r]

It must be a negation of it, which means [i. sub. sd]= -[i. sub. sq]is applied. VII.

Transformer design the transformer parameter algorithm based on the demand Table XIV is listed in table 15 to meet the educational needs.

For example, in order to assess the student\'s ability to do vector algebra in one exam, the instructor may wish [[alpha]. sub. E[V. sub. 2]]

Angle can not be ignored.

Most formulas and symbols do not give an explanation because they are good --known.

Their organization is algorithm.

The algorithm proposed in this paper can help design the manufacturing purpose.

An example of transformer design, assuming [[micro]. sub. r]= 900, [h. sup. 2]

/A = 133, magnetic flux density B = 1.

However, they give a fairly close opinion on physical design. VIII.

Easy conclusionto-

The basic model parameters of DC servo motor, induction motor, PMSMs, WRSMs and transformer are proposed using formulas and algorithms.

The design requirements are mainly operating conditions.

Other design requirements such as turn ratio, time constant, leakage coefficient, etc.

This is simple for an inexperienced researcher.

The obtained set of model parameters fully meets the operating conditions required for the assumed model.

These algorithms are also applicable to the needs of generator modes.

Although the proposed design algorithms do not produce most of the manufacturing parameters, they will also help to determine them because the required operational values are also found.

To illustrate this possibility, the transformer example has been extended to this level.

Even if it is more difficult for the motor, a quick opinion on the physical size can be inferred with the proposed algorithm. REFERENCES [1]J. A. Reyer, P. Y.

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Sevinc, \"integrated algorithm of minimum controller with output feedback and its promotion\", Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Turkey, Vol. 21, pp. 2329-2344,Nov. 2013. doi:10. 3906/elk-1109-61 [18]S. R. Bowes, A. Sevinc, D.

Hollinger, \"the new natural observer applied to speed --

IEEE Trans: \"DC servo and induction motors without sensors.

Industrial Electronics, Volume 151, pp. 1025-1032, Oct. 2004. doi:10. 1109/TIE. 2004. 834963 [19]C. B. Jacobina, J. Bione Fo, F. Salvadori, A. M. N. Lima, andL. A. S.

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ROME, Italy, Page 2000. 1809-1813. doi:10. 1109/IAS. 2000. 882125 [20]K. Koga, R. Ueda, T.

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Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application4, pp. 161-178, June 2015. doi:10. 4236/ijmnta. 2015. 42012 [22]E. L. C.

Arroyo, \"Modeling and Simulation of drive system of permanent magnet synchronous motor\", M. Sc. thesis, Dept. Electrical Eng.

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Uman people, electric machinery.

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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Kirikkale university of Turkey Ata SEVINC. as @ atasevinc. 71451

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Researchers engaged in the control simulation of electric vehicles usually need a set of appropriate model parameters to produce operating conditions on the desired area.

Since any set of parameters may not be reasonable, they look for a set of parameters in the simulation that belong to a real motor, or at least a verified model.

However, what they have discovered may not meet their requirements well.

Also, since there may be a programming error in a set of parameters and working conditions, they may not notice an exception to the simulation results.

So they do need some design algorithms that simply give the model parameters that control the simulation within the required scope of work.

There are several works of DC motor design [1-3]

Induction Motor [4-7]

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)[8-10]

, Or around the rotor (WRSM)[11-13]

, And two cylindrical [9], [12]and salient-pole [10-11], [13]rotor types.

They explained good ways to find physical implementation and manufacturing parameters and made some improvements;

However, they did not give all the model parameters suitable for the simulation, and sometimes did not even give the winding resistance.

Awebsite provides some computing tools for permanent magnets (PM)

Car designer [14].

It calculates physical parameters, including most of the parameters required for online simple model simulation.

However, the tools ask the user about some of the options, which are not known to inexperienced users even if explanatory pictures are provided.

In addition, the user cannot start directly from the basic requirements for operating conditions such as power, voltage, speed and efficiency.

Therefore, although there are commendable tools and algorithms in motor design, the existing tools and algorithms in the literature are not suitable for researchers to quickly obtain simple model parameters within the required scope of work.

I do not want to extend the reference list, because the study explaining the design methods suitable for the researcher\'s control of the purposes of simulation is clearly a serious lack in the literature.

This paper helps researchers generate their own motion parameters based on the operating conditions they expect.

The proposed algorithm is suitable for DC servo motors, induction motors and synchronous motors with PM or winding rotors of convex or cylindrical type, as well as Transformers.

These are another design algorithms based on standards that are completely different from physical design standards [15-16]

Because it is proposed for the purposes of simulation and calculation.

To illustrate that this design may also give some opinions on the values of manufacturing parameters, including the transformer algorithm.

Although most formulas are good.

As we all know, it should be emphasized that contributions should not be underestimated, and that it is most unlikely to reach a set of parameters that meet the requirements without following particularly organized steps and control assumptions.

My rigorous literature survey did not result in finding an algorithm that met the basic requirements of \"working power, voltage, speed and efficiency\" for DC servo, induction, synchronous motors.

As induction motor and projection

The polar synchronous motor needs detailed algorithm, which is the main contribution of this paper.

As will be described, these algorithms can also be used when given the requirements of the generator mode.

As assumed by most models, the core loss, lag, saturation, and armaturaction roles are ignored here.

The model used by the AC motor is based on 3-phase [

Left and Right arrows2phase (dq)

Transformation equivalent to the amplitude of the phase variable mainly used in the literature.

These algorithms are based on some preferences, as any particular selection of control methods and arbitrary assumptions can be prioritized during the design process to meet the required operating conditions.

For simplicity, most of the algorithm formulas are given in the table.

Models are then given in the paradigm of differential equations, which are ready to be simulated with the solver program. II.

DC Servo Motor Design.

The theory that has been (t)

Derivatives change to zero, electrical and mechanical equations in steady state [17]

Become the motor [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](1)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](2)

If multiplied [i. sub. a]and [omega]

Where are the parameters 【R. sub. a]and [L. sub. a]

Resistance and inductance of Armature ,[K. sub. b]

Is the back potential or torque constant ,[B. sub. f]

Is the friction constant and [J. sub. i]is the inertia;

And variables [v. sub. a]and [i. sub. a]

Voltage and current of the winding applied ,[omega]

Angular rotor speed in [Rad/s]T. sub. L]

Is it load torque ,[P. sub. i]and [P. sub. o]

Input and output power ,[P. sub. m]

Is it mechanical and electrical power ,【P. sub. Cu]and [P. sub. f]

It is the loss power caused by winding resistance and friction respectively.

The model has 5 parameters, but 2 of them are [L. sub. a]and [J. sub. i]

, There is no impact in a stable state.

In addition, there are 2 independent variables ,【v. sub. a]and [T. sub. L].

Therefore, we can have 5 requirements for steady state and 2 requirements for transient, which is the electrical and mechanical time constant determined [L. sub. a]and[J. sub. i]respectively. B.

Algorithm, and give an example of the algorithm of the requirements in table I

Third, most of them are based on the power element diagram (1)-(2)

, For some other requirements, it can be simply modified.

For example, in each ([v. sub. a], [i. sub. a], [P. sub. i]), ([P. sub. o],[P. sub. i], [eta]), ([T. sub. L], [P. sub. o], n), ([k. sub. ml], [P. sub. loss],[P. sub. f]), ([R. sub. a], [L. sub. a], [[tau]. sub. elc])and ([B. sub. f],[J. sub. i],[[tau]. sub. mec])

Triple, if the other two are identified, the third one can be easily found from the simple relationship between them.

If the core loss is not ignored, it must also be subtracted from [P. sub. loss]

When calculating [P. sub. Cu].

The operating values in Table II and the parameters in Table iii are the following simulation of the DC servo motor model [verified accurately]17]: [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](3)III.

Induction Motor Design.

Field Oriented Control theory (FOC)

In the case of a rotor short circuit, it will be considered, where the rotor magnetic field link vector and d-axis.

In addition, the minimum stator rms current will be preferred for equal torque.

Since all derivatives become zero at steady state, the electrical equation [18]

The stator and rotor become [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](4)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](5)where [? ? ]and [[psi]. sub. r]= [[psi]. sub. rd]+ j[[psi]. sub. rq]=[L. sub. r][i. sub. r]+[Mi. sub. s]

Complex stator voltage, current and magnetic flux, and reference frame with respect to rotating at any electrical angular velocity, the rotor is [[omega]. sub. g]; [R. sub. s], [L. sub. s], [R. sub. r]and [L. sub. r]

The stator resistance and inductance, as well as the rotor resistance and inductance, respectively;

The inductance between the stator and the rotor, and [[omega]. sub. r]

It is the electrical speed of the rotor.

With the choice [[omega]. sub. g]satisfying [[psi]. sub. rq]

FOC = 0, from (4)-(5)or [19], we get [[psi]. sub. rd]=[Mi. sub. sd]

In a stable state. Considering [[psi]. sub. r]= ([L. sub. r]/M )([[psi]. sub. s]-[sigma][L. sub. s][i. sub. s])

Steady state value [[[psi]. sub. sq]=[sigma][L. sub. s][i. sub. sq]], [[[psi]. sub. sd]=[L. sub. s][i. sub. sd]](6)

Implementation, which [sigma]= 1 -[M. sup. 2]/([L. sub. s][L. sub. r])

Is the leakage coefficient. Then (4)becomes [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](7)

In a stable state.

Multiply by both sides (3/2)[[i. sub. sd][i. sub. sq]]

From left [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](8)where [P. sub. i]

Stator input power and [P. sub. CuSt]

Is the resistance loss of the stator.

[Choice]

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](9)forces [[psi]. sub. rq][right arrow]

Fast 0 according to the electric time constant of therotor [[tau]. sub. r]=[L. sub. r]/[R. sub. r], and makes (8)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](10)

Another arbitrary choice is the angle of I relative to d-

The axis of the reference frame, no need to impose requirements on [[psi]. sub. rd].

The reasonable choice for this angle is 45 [degrees], i. e. ,[i. sub. sd]= [i. sub. sd]

Maximum mechanical and electrical torque 【T. sub. e]

To some extent [? ? ]since [T. sub. e]

Proportional [i. sub. sd][i. sub. sq]

Because of the choice 【[psi]. sub. rq]

= 0, also let [[omega]]. sub. g]= [[omega]]. sub. s]

, Synchronous speed in electrical rad/s

In other words, this choice provides a certain degree [T. sub. e]

Obtained by the minimum level of the stator rms current. Then from (9)and (10), [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](11)

Where is S?

You can see from the single-

Phase equivalent circuit of induction motor without core loss in steady state ,[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](12)

And according (9), the choice [i. sub. sd]= [i. sub. sd]occurs if [[[tau]. sub. r]= [1-s/s[[omega]. sub. r]]](13)

On the right hand side of the equivalent (11)to that of (12)and using(13)

, We find another parameter relationship from the operation value :[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](14)

In the design algorithm of induction motor, the stator Power factor[phi]. sub. 1]

Since it is equal to [cos45], it should not be the design standarddegrees]

Lag of idealized induction motor [20]

Where, if the minimum stator rmscur rent is applied for the required torque and approximately cos45 [, the flux and stator resistance are zerodegrees]

In most other cases.

The reason is, from (6), since[[psi]. sub. sq]/[[psi]. sub. sd]= [sigma][

About equal to]0,[[psi]. sub. s]

Almost with d-axis, [v. sub. s]is about90[degrees]

Before it, it was about 45 [degrees]ahead of [i. sub. s]when [i. sub. sd]= [i. sub. sq].

Exact value of Cos [[phi]. sub. 1]

It is difficult to determine directly, but we can do it in two stages.

First, the parameters are calculated with [arbitration. [phi]. sub. 1]

The value is 0. 7.

According to the design criteria in the next subsection, the stator current is inversely proportional to cos [[phi]. sub. 1], then ([M. sup. 2]/[L. sub. r])

Proportional [cos. sup. 2][[phi]. sub. 1]by (14)and so are [? ? ]and [L. sub. s]=[M. sup. 2]/(1 -[sigma])[L. sub. r].

Therefore, the stator voltage from (7)

Proportional to cos [[phi]. sub. 1].

Any cos in the first stage [[phi]. sub. 1]value, (7)

The required stator voltage may not be given;

But the correct cos [[phi]. sub. 1]

You can then find the value using scale and calculate some parameters again accordingly. B.

Using an example to meet the requirements in Table IV, the algorithm is first calculated in table v where the same symbol has the same meaning as defined in Section II. Next, 2-

The stage calculation is completed.

In the first stage, the time value represented by the symbol with the upper limit is found with the arbitration cos [[phi]. sub. 1](0.

7 for example)

As shown in Table 6.

In the second phase, some operational values and parameters are accurately calculated as shown in Table VII to meet the requirements.

As shown in Table VIII, some additional operation values can also be calculated. C.

Models that simulate parameter sets can be used with any form of model;

For example, arrange the model differential equation in [18]

Become normal ,(15)

Obtained in synchronous reference frame

The rotor, and the stator current and the rotor magnetic field are the electrical state variables. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](15)

In addition, a double-fed motor model (16)

It can also be used with the parameters found by the algorithm;

However, the operating value of the algorithm is zero rotor voltage [v. sub. rd], [v. sub. rq]. Equation (16)

The differential equation of the model is obtained in [21]

Normal form. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](16)D.

Equivalent circuit and added value: parameters can also be converted to single-

Phase equivalent circuit (Fig. 1)

As shown in Table 9.

All of these parameters and operating conditions are simulated (15)

And the calculation of the equivalent circuit. IV. PMSM DESIGN A.

Theory in order to develop the design algorithm of the permanent magnet synchronous motor, the direction of the stator magnetic field will be considered, where the components of the stator magnetic field linker are from the permanent magnet source ([[PHI]. sub. PM])

Align with d-axis.

In addition, the minimum stator rms current will be preferred for the required torque.

Stator equation]22]

Similar to the induction motor [[omega]. sub. r]replaced for [[omega]. sub. g].

Since all the derivatives become zero in the steady state, the stator equation becomes [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](17)where [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](18)[L. sub. sd]and [L. sub. sq]are d-and q-

Significant-different axis synchronous inductance

The meaning of the pole machine and similar symbols is similar to that of the induction motor.

And then in balance ,[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](19)

Multiply by both sides (3/2)[[i. sub. sd][i. sub. sq]]

Input power from left :[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](20)

The first term on the right is [P. sub. Cu].

Because the mechanical and electrical torque is [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](21)and [[omega]. sub. mec]=[[omega]. sub. r]/[n. sub. pp]

, The sum of the other two terms on the right side (20)

Equal to mechanical and electrical power ([P. sub. m]=[T. sub. e][[omega]. sub. mec]= [P. sub. o]+ [P. sub. f]).

To get the biggest [T. sub. e]

To a certain extent, the rent of the stator rmscur [? ? ]Generation [? ? ]

Equal the derivative [T. sub. e]

About [i. sub. sd]

To zero, we need to solve [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](22)for [i. sub. sd]. Using [? ? ]

Defined as the ratio of torque to total [due to permanent magnets]T. sub. e], and [? ? ]in (22), [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](23)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](24)Since [[PHI]. sub. PM]

Is a certain parameter ,[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](25)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](26)

The algorithm to determine the parameters of the permanent magnet synchronous motor according to the desired operating conditions is very simple for the cylindrical rotor type because [k. sub. TPM]=1 as [L. sub. sd]= [L. sub. sq]. Equating[? ? ]by using (19)gives [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](27)

Permanent magnet synchronous motor for cylindrical rotor.

However, a nonlinear equation [k. sub. TPM]

The problem of these coefficients is very complicated and should be solved. pole type.

To determine [it is recommended to use a loop algorithm instead of resolving this complex problem]k. sub. TPM].

The loop algorithm can be Newton-

Rampson\'s method, but the derivative is replaced by the numerical approximation of the last two iterations.

Other parameters can then be determined. B.

Using an example to meet the requirements in table X, the algorithm is first calculated in TableXI, where the same symbol has the same meaning as defined in the previous sections.

So, if the rotor is cylindrical. e. [k. sub. dq]

= 1, other parameters and some operation values are shown in Table 12.

For the significant-pole motors ([k. sub. dq][not equal to]1)

, The following algorithm with loop is proposed: Step 1: assign stop e value for | [e. sub. v]

| Absolute error [V. sub. s1. sup. rms]

Requirements, for example [epsilon]= [10. sup. -6]V.

Step 2: assign a limit for | [DELTA][k. sub. TPM]

|, Absolute change]k. sub. TPM]

In a step, for example [DELTA][k. sub. max]= 0. 02.

Step 3: start the following operation at any time for example value [k. sub. TPM]= 0. 5, [DELTA][k. sub. TPM]= 0. 0001, [e. sub. v]= 0. 3V,[e. sub. V. sup. old]= 0.

Step 4 of 5 V: edge | [e. sub. V]| > [epsilon], Step 4. a:[? ? ]Step 4. b: If [? ? ], then [? ? ]Step 4. c: [k. sub. TPM]= [k. sub. TPM]+ [DELTA][k. sub. TPM],[e. sub. V. sup. old]= [e. sub. V]Step 4. d: Calculate [i. sub. sd]and [i. sub. sd]from (25)and (26)Step 4. e: [? ? ]Step 4. g: Calculate [v. sub. sd]and [v. sub. sq]from (19)Step 4. h: [? ? ]

At the end, the algorithm generates the parameters and action values in the example in TableXIII.

They are verified accurately by simulating C.

Models used to simulate parameter sets can be used with any form of the model, for example ,(28)

In the synchronous reference frame with stator current and rotor speed as electrical state variables.

The differential equation of the model is obtained in [22]

Normal form. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](28)V. WRSM DESIGN A.

Theory to determine the WRSM parameters of certain operating values, the same as the design method of permanent magnet synchronous motor that replaces [P. sub. Cu]and[[PHI]. sub. PM]with [P. sub. CuSt]and [Mi. sub. f]

Where are they 【i. sub. f]

Is the rotor current, M is the inductance between the stator and the rotor. Similarly [P. sub. i]in [I. sub. s1. sup. rms]and[T. sub. e]

The formula is replaced only with the input power of the stator [P. sub. iSt]= [P. sub. i]-[P. sub. CuRot].

In addition, any two expectations for a given [v. sub. f], [i. sub. f]and [k. sub. rl]=[P. sub. CuRot]/[P. sub. loss];

The third is found in their steady-state relationship,v. sub. f]= [R. sub. f][i. sub. f], where [v. sub. f]and [R. sub. f]

It is the voltage and resistance of the rotor.

Determine the rotor inductance [L. sub. f]

, Additional requirements for measuring the current between the Stator phase and the rotor winding[[sigma]. sub. f]= 1 -[3[M. sup. 2]/2[L. sub. sd][L. sub. f]]](29)

This measurement is slightly more complex than the usual leakage efficiency due to the notability of the rotor, but still conforms to 0 [

Less than or equal to][[sigma]. sub. f][

Less than or equal to]1 since[L. sub. sd]

Is 3/2 times the Stator phase self-sensing, in the case of optimal alignment with the rotor, noleakage [23]. Then, weget [[L. sub. f]= [3[M. sup. 2]/2(1 -[[sigma]. sub. f])[L. sub. sd]]]. (30)B.

Algorithm with example 1)

Requirements: without losing the generalization, do not write the same steps again as in the permanent magnet synchronous motor design, and the same requirements will be assumed to be slightly different, while [P. sub. o], [P. sub. iSt]= [P. sub. i]-[P. sub. CuRot], [P. sub. CuRot]and [P. sub. f]

As before ,[k. sub. rl]= 0.

Choose 2, meaning [P. sub. i]= 5250W,[P. sub. loss]= 1250W, [P. sub. CuRot]= 250W, [k. sub. ml]= 0. 2 and [eta]=0.

7619 is ideal.

Let the extra need be [v. sub. f]= 24Vand [[sigma]. sub. f]= 0. 02. 2)

Calculation: Now, all the other values in the calculation section given in PMSMsection are the same [[PHI]. sub. PM]as [Mi. sub. f]. Then, [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](31)[

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](32)

For the cylindrical rotor case ([k. sub. dq]= 1), [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](33)and by (30), [L. sub. f]= 154. 5 mH.

For the significant-Case of pole]k. sub. dq]= 5/3. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](34)and by (30), [L. sub. f]= 130. 5 mH. C.

Models used to simulate parameter sets can be used with any form of model, for example, the following models in the synchronous reference frame with stator current and rotor speed as electrical state variables. [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](35)

This is the paradigm of the model differential equation in [24]

, Where the flux link variable is [

Non-reproducible mathematical expressions](36)and [[psi]. sub. f]

Magnetic flux of rotor winding. VI.

According to the motor mode, the generator in the generator mode is modified, and the input power and the shaft output power of the motor become negative, which is defined as negative.

Although the negative value of the shaft output power with the motor mode definition is the shaft input power of the generator, the relative value of the input power to the motor mode definition is not the output power of the generator if the excitation current is applied.

Therefore, when the proposed algorithm is used for generator mode, the negative value of the generator\'s desired output power is added to the excitation power and used as the input power in the algorithm.

For example, for a bypass rotor synchronous generator, the design requirement is 1300W of the total shaft input power, 1000W of the net motor stator output power and 100W of the excitation (rotor)inputpower.

So any two input power [P. sub. i]= -

Output power: 900WP. sub. o]= -

1300 W, efficiency (1300)/(-900)= 1.

Although the efficiency of the generator is 444 = 0, 900/1300 is used as a design requirement in the algorithm. 692 actually. For doubly-

Motor, the power input of the rotor is also considered to be the excitation power, if the positive excitation power is extracted from the electrical terminal of the rotor, the excitation power will also become negative.

The design of the induction motor according to the generator mode requirements requires two further measures.

I. Initial value cos [[phi]. sub. 1]

Negative values must be taken, for example-0. 7.

Second, do not from (13)

Negative slip ,[[tau]. sub. r]

It must be a negation of it, which means [i. sub. sd]= -[i. sub. sq]is applied. VII.

Transformer design the transformer parameter algorithm based on the demand Table XIV is listed in table 15 to meet the educational needs.

For example, in order to assess the student\'s ability to do vector algebra in one exam, the instructor may wish [[alpha]. sub. E[V. sub. 2]]

Angle can not be ignored.

Most formulas and symbols do not give an explanation because they are good --known.

Their organization is algorithm.

The algorithm proposed in this paper can help design the manufacturing purpose.

An example of transformer design, assuming [[micro]. sub. r]= 900, [h. sup. 2]

/A = 133, magnetic flux density B = 1.

However, they give a fairly close opinion on physical design. VIII.

Easy conclusionto-

The basic model parameters of DC servo motor, induction motor, PMSMs, WRSMs and transformer are proposed using formulas and algorithms.

The design requirements are mainly operating conditions.

Other design requirements such as turn ratio, time constant, leakage coefficient, etc.

This is simple for an inexperienced researcher.

The obtained set of model parameters fully meets the operating conditions required for the assumed model.

These algorithms are also applicable to the needs of generator modes.

Although the proposed design algorithms do not produce most of the manufacturing parameters, they will also help to determine them because the required operational values are also found.

To illustrate this possibility, the transformer example has been extended to this level.

Even if it is more difficult for the motor, a quick opinion on the physical size can be inferred with the proposed algorithm. REFERENCES [1]J. A. Reyer, P. Y.

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Tools based on permanent design

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Emadi, \"Design and comparison of internal permanent magnet motor topology for traction applications\", ieee trans.

Electrified Transportation, Volume 13, pp. 86-97, Mar. 2017. doi:10. 1109/TTE. 2016. 2614972 [16]H. Saavedra, J. -R. Riba, L.

Romelar, more

Goal optimization design of five-Phase Fault-

Progress in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Volume II. 15, pp. 69-76,Feb. 2015. doi:10. 4316/AECE. 2015. 01010 [17]A.

Sevinc, \"integrated algorithm of minimum controller with output feedback and its promotion\", Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Turkey, Vol. 21, pp. 2329-2344,Nov. 2013. doi:10. 3906/elk-1109-61 [18]S. R. Bowes, A. Sevinc, D.

Hollinger, \"the new natural observer applied to speed --

IEEE Trans: \"DC servo and induction motors without sensors.

Industrial Electronics, Volume 151, pp. 1025-1032, Oct. 2004. doi:10. 1109/TIE. 2004. 834963 [19]C. B. Jacobina, J. Bione Fo, F. Salvadori, A. M. N. Lima, andL. A. S.

IEEE-Ribeiro, \"a simple indirect field-facing motor control without speed measurement\"IAS Conf. Rec.

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DFIM sensor failures-

Model diagnosis method based on adaptive pim multi-Observer-

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Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application4, pp. 161-178, June 2015. doi:10. 4236/ijmnta. 2015. 42012 [22]E. L. C.

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University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, 2006. [23]A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, Jr. , S. D.

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Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Kirikkale university of Turkey Ata SEVINC. as @ atasevinc. 71451

Net numeric object identifier 10. 4316/AECE. 2019.

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